Reciprocating pumps include piston pumps, metering pumps, and diaphragm pumps, commonly known as reciprocating pumps. It is a kind of positive displacement pump and is widely used. The reciprocating pump is a conveying machine that directly provides energy to the liquid in the form of pressure energy through the reciprocating motion of the piston. According to the driving mode, reciprocating pumps are divided into two categories: motorized pumps (motor-driven) and direct-acting pumps (steam, gas, or liquid drive).
The main features of the reciprocating pump are:
② High efficiency and wide high-efficiency area.
②It can reach very high pressure, and the pressure change hardly affects the flow, so it can provide a constant flow.
③ With self-priming ability, it can transport liquid and gas mixture, and it can also transport mud and concrete with a special design.
④ The flow and pressure have larger pulsation, especially for single-acting pumps, due to the acceleration of the piston movement and the discontinuity of liquid discharge, the pulsation is larger. It is usually necessary to set up an air chamber on the discharge line (and sometimes on the suction line) to make the flow more uniform. The use of double-acting and multi-cylinder pumps can also significantly improve flow inhomogeneity.
⑤ The speed is low, the size is large, and the structure is more complicated than that of the centrifugal pump. It needs a special pump valve, and the manufacturing cost and installation costs are high. The piston pump is mainly used for water supply, and the manual piston pump is a widely used domestic water pump. The plunger pump is used to provide a high-pressure liquid source, such as the high-pressure water supply of the hydraulic press, and both it and the piston pump can be used as the drilling mud pump and oil pump in the oil field. Diaphragm pumps are especially suitable for conveying highly toxic, radioactive, corrosive liquids, precious liquids, and liquids containing abrasive solids. Diaphragm and plunger pumps can also be used as metering pumps.
Features of reciprocating pump:
- Strong self-priming ability;
- The theoretical flow has nothing to do with the working pressure, but only depends on the speed, the size of the pump cylinder, and the number of actions;
- The rated discharge pressure has nothing to do with the size and speed of the pump;
- Uneven flow;
- The speed should not be too fast;
- Not very sensitive to liquid contamination;
- The structure is more complex and there are many wearing parts.
Advantages of reciprocating pumps
(1) High discharge pressure can be obtained, and the flow rate has nothing to do with the pressure, the suction performance is good, and the efficiency is high, among which the steam reciprocating pump can reach 80%~95%;
(2) In principle, any medium can be transported, almost not limited by the physical or chemical properties of the medium;
(3) The performance of the pump does not change with the change of the pressure and the viscosity of the conveying medium.
Other pumps do not have the above outstanding advantages of reciprocating pumps, but their structure is relatively simple, the use and operation are relatively convenient, and they also have the advantages of small size, lightweight, uniform flow, and serialized mass production.
Disadvantages of reciprocating pumps
Traffic is not very stable. Under the same flow rate, it is larger than the centrifugal pump; the mechanism is complex; the capital consumption is large; it is not easy to maintain, etc.
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