A pump is a machine that conveys or pressurizes a fluid. It transfers the mechanical energy of the prime mover or other external energy to the liquid, making the liquid energy increase. The pump is mainly used to transport liquids such as water, oil, acid-base liquid, emulsion, suspension emulsion, and liquid metal, and can also transport liquid, gas mixture, and liquid containing suspended solids. Pumps can usually be divided into three categories: positive displacement pumps, dynamic pumps, and other types of pumps according to their working principles. In addition to classification by working principle, it can also be classified and named by other methods. For example, according to the driving method, it can be divided into the electric pump and turbine pump; according to the structure, it can be divided into the single-stage pump and multi-stage pump; according to the purpose, it can be divided into boiler feed pump and metering pump; Water pump, oil pump and mud pump, etc. According to the structure with or without shaft, it can be divided into the linear pump and traditional pump. The water pump can only transport the flow with the fluid as the medium, and cannot transport the solid.
By working principle
- Positive displacement pump
The movement of the working part causes the working volume to increase and shrink periodically to suck and discharge the liquid, and the pressure of the liquid is directly increased by the extrusion of the working part.
The different movement modes of moving parts, it is divided into two categories: reciprocating pump and rotary pump.
According to the structure of moving parts, there are: piston pump and plunger pump, gear pump, screw pump, vane pump and water ring pump.
- Impeller pump
The impeller pump relies on the impeller to drive the liquid to rotate at a high speed and transfer the mechanical energy to the conveyed liquid.
Different impeller types can be divided into:
1) Centrifugal pump
2) Axial pump
3) Mixed-flow pump
4) Peripheral pump
- Jet pump
It relies on the high-speed jet generated by the working fluid to eject the fluid, and then increases the energy of the ejected fluid through momentum exchange.
The pump can also be divided into:
1) Vertical pump
2) Horizontal pump
According to the number of suction ports:
1)Single suction pump
2) Double suction pump
According to the prime mover driving the pump:
1) Electric pump (motor pump)
2) steam turbine pump
3) Diesel pump
4) Pneumatic diaphragm pump (diaphragm pump)